Cannabinoids are a varied group of chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant and active on cannabinoid receptors in the body.
Phytocannabinoids are a group of active molecules in the cannabis plant, formed from the plant’s enzymes, unlike endocannabinoids which are formed in the human or mammal body.
Over 100 cannabinoids have been identified in the cannabis plant, of which the main ones are:
THC, the main and best-known cannabinoid in the plant. Partial agonist in receptors CB1 and CB2, it is the principal psychoactive constituent of the plant, with many healing properties:
- Counters pain and nausea, with benefits for tiredness and loss of appetite.
- Reduces aggression.
- Relaxes muscles, combats spasms.
- Bronchodilator and antioxidant.
THC was first identified and isolated in 1964 at the Weizmann Institute by Prof. Yechiel Gaoni and Prof. Raphael Mechoulam, who won the Israel Prize for his research on cannabis. In the first regulation, according to the Medical Cannabis Unit, the THC concentration in medical cannabis products will be in the range of 0%-24%.
CBD, the second main cannabinoid in the plant, also called cannabidiol, is mostly found in hemp (a variety of cannabis used for fibers and cloth). It is an antagonist to CB1 and therefore regulates its effect on side effects linked to THC, such as anxiety, tachycardia and hunger. CBD has pain-relieving properties:
- Supports the therapeutic function in cell-transfer disorders (endometriosis)
- Reduces seizures
- Combats nausea
- Cytotoxic (cell destroying) to breast cancer cells
- Combats anxiety and treats depression.
It was first identified and isolated in 1940 by an American chemist, Roger Adams. In the first regulation, according to the Medical Cannabis Unit, the CBD concentration in medical cannabis products in Israel will be in the range of 0%-32%.
CBN: an external by-product of THC. Prominent in cannabis samples that have expired. Has low attachment to CB1 and CB2; when tested alone, the impression is that it is not active, but in combination with THC, it has been found that CBN:
- Can help with sleeping problems
- Helps to reduce seizures
- Has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties.
- Has potential for treating burns and strengthens bones.
In the first regulation, according to the Medical Cannabis Unit, the CBN concentration in medical cannabis products will be less than 1.5%.