All of us have in our bodies receptors that detect cannabinoids from the cannabis plant and react to them. This system, which exists in all mammals, is called the endocannabinoid system.
This is a neurotransmitter system that operates on the brain and affects a range of functions and systems in the body. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and the study of its physiological functions, by Prof. Raphael Mechoulam and his colleagues, helped to open a new area of biochemistry and study of the brain. Later the cannabinoid receptors were identified, followed by their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. So far a number of neural receptors for cannabinoids have been identified, of which the best known are CB2, CB1, and GRP55. The first receptor discovered – CB1 – is found mainly in the brain, but it recent years it has also been found in peripheral tissues – CB2. It is almost exclusively expressed in cells and organs linked to the immune system and blood system, with the highest concentration found in the spleen, and is responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabis.
The discovery of cannabinoid receptors indicated to researchers the existence of substances endogenous to the receptor, and indeed in the early 1990s, Prof. Lumír Ondřej Hanuš and Prof. Raphael Mechoulam isolated the anandamide. Endocannabinoid substances in our body: the anandamide neural transmitter is created by the synthesis of arachidonic acid and ethanolamine. The name anandamide is formed from the word “ananda” which in Sanskrit means “happiness”, and the suffix “-amide”, which means “residual molecule”. Anandamide, which is also called AEA (arachidonoyl-ethanolamide) is important for fetal development in pregnancy and is apparently linked to feelings of happiness and joy. It is linked to CB1 and found mainly in the brain. Levels rise if there is an oxygen deficiency or brain injury, in order to protect the body. Another endocannabinoid, AG2 (arachidonoylglycerol 2) is linked to both CB1 and CB2 and found in the brain and the spleen; it is apparently linked to the immune system and also involved in the regulation of blood pressure.
The two endocannabinoids – anandamide and AG2, found in the brain and peripheral tissue, affect anxiety, nutrition, depression, birth, bone strength and protection.
The attachment of the plant’s active substances in the human body enables treatment and adjunct treatment for symptoms and various diseases in children, adults, and the elderly.